Science and technology is mandatory for all students from Kindergarten to Year 6.
In science and technology, students explore the natural and made worlds. They learn how to apply scientific and technological skills, knowledge and understanding across a broad range of contexts.
Science provides a way of inquiring about the world around us. It explores evidence and investigates ways to discover, develop and produce solutions to real world problems. The inquiry and skill-based nature of science opens doors to ideas and discoveries.
Early Stage 1
By the end of Early Stage 1, students engage in the processes of Working Scientifically, and Design and Production to make sense of the world around them. They explore their immediate surroundings and ask questions about their observations and experiences. They collect data and communicate their ideas and observations in a variety of ways. Students investigate possibilities and solutions, individually and in collaboration with others, and use the design process to develop solutions. They effectively use a range of classroom equipment and learn to work safely when using resources and materials.
Students recognise that living things have different features and basic needs which can be met. They recognise that plants and animals can be used for food, clothing and shelter. Students identify that objects are made from materials that have observable properties, and that these properties influence their design and use. They describe how objects move and observe the effects of push and pull forces. Students identify daily and seasonal changes in the environment. Students also identify familiar digital systems and follow a simple set of instructions.
By the end of Stage 1, students engage in the processes of Working Scientifically, and Design and Production. They participate in guided investigations, pose and respond to questions and make predictions. Students collect and represent information using a variety of methods. They safely manipulate equipment and materials, making sustainable and time-efficient choices. Students generate and develop design ideas and solutions that they communicate with labelled drawings and models and through the use of digital technologies where appropriate. They provide explanations about what they have done and evaluate their ideas using predetermined criteria.
Students describe the external features, changes and growth of living things and how their environments provide for their needs. They identify how plants and animals are produced for food and fibre. Students investigate the characteristics and properties of materials, how they can be changed and combined for a purpose. Students identify heat, light and sound energy and explore how forces and energy can be used. They are able to identify observable changes that occur on the Earth and in the sky and how humans care for the environment and Earth’s resources. Students identify the components of digital systems and explore how data is represented through pictures, symbols and diagrams. They describe, follow and represent algorithms that are needed to solve problems.
By the end of Stage 2, students engage in the processes of Working Scientifically, and Design and Production by asking questions, predicting outcomes and undertaking guided investigations with increasing independence. Students make and record observations, using formal units where appropriate, and compare results with predictions. They reflect on whether methods undertaken are fair and identify ways to improve subsequent investigations. Students organise and identify patterns in data and create tables to organise and represent information.
Students develop solutions that address specific criteria. They generate and develop ideas, using research to inform their design ideas, which are represented using sketches, brainstorms and where appropriate, digital technologies. Students select materials appropriate for their purposes, with consideration of sustainability and constraints to produce designed solutions. They are guided to develop specific criteria to critically evaluate designed solutions.
Students compare living things and identify the life cycles which support the survival of plant and animal species. They describe how agricultural processes are used to grow plants and raise animals for food, clothing and shelter. Students identify the physical properties of materials and how heat can alter their state. They investigate the suitability of natural and manufactured materials for specific purposes. They explain how energy is transferred from one place to another, and how forces affect objects and the behaviour of a product or system. Students describe the regular changes caused by interactions between the Earth and the Sun, and the changes to the Earth’s surface that are caused over time by natural processes and human activity. They describe how digital systems transmit data, explore different types of data and how data patterns can be represented and interpreted.
By the end of Stage 3, students have developed an appreciation of the role of Science and Technology in local, national and global issues relevant to their lives and a sustainable future. Students engage in the skills of Working Scientifically, and Design and Production independently and collaboratively. They pose questions for investigation, predict likely outcomes, and demonstrate accuracy and honesty when collecting, recording and analysing data and information. Students plan and conduct fair tests, isolate variables and select appropriate measurement methods. They construct tables and graphs to organise data and are able to identify patterns, using evidence to compare with predictions, draw conclusions and develop explanations. Students develop criteria to evaluate success based on their intended outcome. They examine needs and opportunities for design projects, using research and existing solutions to inform their ideas. Students are able to reflect on their processes to identify risks and improve their design ideas, methods and findings. They communicate their ideas in tables, graphs, diagrams and multimodal texts, using digital technologies where applicable.
Students examine how environmental conditions affect the growth, adaptations, structural features and survival of living things. They explain how food and fibre are produced sustainably in managed environments for health and nutrition. Students examine the properties of materials and observe how changes of state occur and new substances are formed. Students explain how energy is transformed, describe the difference between contact and non-contact forces, and investigate how electrical energy can control movement. They compare the regular events in the solar system with the irregular events that cause rapid changes to the Earth’s surface. Students collect, store and interpret different types of data and explain how digital systems connect to form networks that transmit data. They define problems, and design, modify and follow simple algorithms that involve branching, iteration and user input.